The world's climate appears now to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Although it is a complex phenomenon and its full-scale impacts are hard to predict far in advance, it is well established that it influences the emergence of diseases particularly vector-borne diseases (VBDs).
The potential impact of climate change on vector distribution and VBD incidence is of very significant and immediate concern. There is considerable evidence that changes in the phenology and distribution of a wide range of arthropod species have occurred in response to climate change worldwide. No region is immune from the negative impact of climate change.
The Mediterranean region is also vulnerable to climatic changes and it is expected that the incidence of VBD in the region will increase in the next coming years. Several outbreaks of different VBDs have been recently documented in the region and it clearly appears that it has been playing a crucial role in emerging and spreading animal diseases particularly those transmitted by vectors such as Bluetongue (BT), Epizootic Haemorragic disease (EHD), Lumpy Skin disease etc. These are severe diseases, which have caused and are causing dramatic losses on the livestock industry with strong economic and social consequences. This project mainly deals with BT, which has been one of the most feared VBDs occurring in the Mediterranean region in the last two decades with an impact ranging from 85 million to 1.4 billion/year at national level